Mastering Loan Structures: Strategies Top Australian Property Investors Use

Having an optimised loan structure can significantly impact the return on investment (ROI) of your property investment. Let’s dive in to understand how and why an effective loan structure is crucial for maximising your returns.

Estimated reading time: 20 minutes



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In the dynamic landscape of Australian real estate, the ability to adapt your financial strategies to local market conditions and regulatory frameworks is essential. Each decision you make, from the type of loan you choose to the terms you negotiate, can significantly influence your success as an investor. By staying informed and agile, you can take advantage of opportunities and navigate through potential risks with greater confidence.

How this Guide Can Help?

In this guide, we’ll explore the various loan types available to Australian property investors and dissect the advantages and drawbacks of each in the context of current economic conditions. Whether you are just starting out or looking to refine your investment approach, this information will empower you to make decisions that align with your long-term financial goals.

Section 1: Loan Types Tailored for Australian Investors

Fixed-Rate vs. Variable-Rate Loans in Australia

When navigating the Australian property market, understanding the different types of loans available can significantly influence your investment strategy. In Australia, the choice between fixed-rate and variable-rate loans is crucial due to its impact on payment stability, flexibility, and potential cost savings under varying economic conditions. Here, we’ll break down the characteristics, benefits, and potential drawbacks of each type, helping you decide which best suits your investment needs.

Fixed-Rate Loans in Australia

Fixed-rate loans are straightforward and predictable. When you choose a fixed-rate loan, the interest rate you agree to at the start remains the same throughout the term of the loan, regardless of fluctuations in the market. This predictability makes budgeting easier, as your repayment amounts won’t change over the period.


  • Stability: Your repayments are immune to interest rate hikes, making financial planning and budgeting simpler.
  • Predictability: Easier to forecast cash flow and investment returns as you know your costs upfront.


  • Less flexibility: Fixed-rate loans typically have limitations on extra repayments and may incur fees for paying off the loan early.
  • Opportunity cost: If interest rates fall, you’ll be stuck paying the higher fixed rate, potentially missing out on lower repayment opportunities.

When are fixed rates favourable?

Fixed-rate loans are particularly advantageous in a low-interest-rate environment when rates are expected to rise. Locking in a low rate can save you money over the term of the loan, especially during times of economic uncertainty when interest rates are volatile.

Variable-Rate Loans in Australia

Variable-rate loans, on the other hand, have interest rates that can go up or down based on changes in the market, typically influenced by the official cash rate set by the Reserve Bank of Australia. This means your repayment amounts can vary throughout the loan term.


  • Flexibility: Usually allows for additional repayments without penalty, which can reduce the total interest paid over the life of the loan.
  • Potential savings: If interest rates drop, so do your repayment amounts, potentially saving you money.


  • Uncertainty: Monthly repayments can increase if interest rates rise, which could impact budgeting and cash flow.
  • Riskier in a volatile market: If economic conditions worsen and interest rates rise sharply, the cost of borrowing could significantly increase.

When are variable rates favourable?

Variable-rate loans are often more appealing when interest rates are high but expected to drop. They offer the potential for decreased payments over time and generally provide more flexibility than fixed-rate loans. They are ideal for investors who can manage fluctuations in their monthly expenses and are looking to capitalise on potential decreases in interest rates.

Interest-Only vs. Principal and Interest Loans in the Australian Context

Choosing between interest-only and principal and interest loans is another critical decision for property investors in Australia. Each type of loan has distinct characteristics that can significantly impact your financial strategy and cash flow management. Understanding how these loans operate under Australian lending conditions and examining real-life scenarios can help clarify which option might best suit your investment goals.

Interest-Only Loans in Australia

Interest-only loans allow borrowers to pay only the interest on the loan for a set period, typically 5 to 10 years. During this period, the principal amount does not decrease unless additional payments are made.


  • Lower Repayments: Initially, repayments are lower because you’re only paying the interest, which can free up cash for other investments or expenses.
  • Tax Efficiency: For investors, interest payments on an investment property can be tax-deductible, making this an attractive option for reducing taxable income.


  • Higher Overall Cost: Over the long term, you may end up paying more in interest because the principal balance does not decrease during the interest-only period.
  • Repayment Shock: Once the interest-only period ends, repayments increase significantly as you begin to pay both principal and interest.


Consider Sarah, an investor who purchases a rental property in Perth with an interest-only loan. During the first five years, she benefits from reduced repayment amounts, allowing her to renovate her property and increase its rental yield. However, she prepares for higher payments once the interest-only period expires by adjusting the rent and tightening her budget.

Principal and Interest Loans in Australia

Principal and interest loans involve making payments that cover both the interest and a portion of the principal loan amount, gradually reducing the total debt over the life of the loan.


  • Equity Building: With each payment, you’re gradually increasing your equity in the property, which can be beneficial for long-term wealth accumulation.
  • Lower Total Interest Paid: Paying off the principal over time reduces the amount of interest paid over the life of the loan compared to an interest-only loan.


  • Higher Initial Repayments: Monthly payments are higher from the start compared to interest-only loans, as they include both principal and interest.


James, an investor, buys a property in Sydney with a principal and interest loan. His initial monthly payments are higher than they would have been with an interest-only loan, but he benefits from building equity faster. This strategy pays off as he plans to sell the property after a decade, hoping to profit from its increased value and the equity built.

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Section 2: Essential Metrics for Australian Property Loans

The Importance of Loan-to-Value Ratio (LVR) in Australia

In the realm of Australian property financing, the Loan-to-Value Ratio (LVR) stands out as a critical metric that lenders use to assess the risk associated with a loan. Understanding how LVR works and its implications can be a game-changer for property investors looking to navigate the financial landscape efficiently.

How LVR is Assessed in Australia

LVR is calculated by dividing the amount of the loan by the value of the property being purchased, then multiplying by 100 to get a percentage.

For example, if you borrow $400,000 to purchase a property worth $500,000, the LVR would be 80%. Australian lenders use LVR to determine the level of risk they’re taking on. A higher LVR indicates higher risk, as it means the borrower has invested less of their own capital upfront.

Implications of LVR on Borrowing

  • Borrowing Capacity: Generally, the lower the LVR, the more favourably lenders view the loan application, as it suggests the borrower has more equity in the property and thus poses a lower risk. This can influence the terms of the loan, including interest rates and approval chances.
  • Loan Approval: Lenders typically prefer an LVR of 80% or less. If the LVR exceeds this threshold, lenders might require additional assurances or adjustments to the loan terms to mitigate their risk.

Impact of LVR on Mortgage Insurance Requirements

In Australia, if the LVR exceeds 80%, borrowers are usually required to purchase Lenders Mortgage Insurance (LMI). This insurance protects the lender (not the borrower) if the borrower fails to repay the loan and the sale of the property does not cover the outstanding amount. LMI can be a significant additional cost, but it enables borrowers to access property finance with a smaller deposit.

Case Study:

Consider the case of Lisa, who wishes to buy a property in Brisbane valued at $600,000. She has a deposit of $90,000, making her loan amount $510,000. This sets her LVR at 85%, necessitating the purchase of LMI to secure loan approval. While this increases her upfront costs, it allows her to enter the property market sooner than if she had waited to accumulate a larger deposit.

Maximising Your Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR)

Understanding and managing your Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) is essential for any property investor aiming to secure favorable loan terms in Australia. DSCR measures a property’s ability to generate enough rental income to cover its loan repayments, an indicator highly regarded by Australian lenders when assessing loan applications.

How DSCR is Calculated in Australia

DSCR is calculated by dividing the annual net operating income (NOI) from a property by the property’s annual debt service (total loan repayments). For example, if a property generates $100,000 in NOI and has $80,000 in annual debt repayments, the DSCR would be 1.25. This ratio helps lenders evaluate whether the property can comfortably cover its debt obligations, with a higher DSCR indicating a lower risk to the lender.

Australian Banks and DSCR

  • Thresholds: Most Australian banks look for a DSCR of at least 1.2 to 1.5. Ratios below this range may still qualify for a loan but likely with stricter terms or higher interest rates.
  • Variability: Different banks may have slightly different methods for calculating NOI, with some expenses considered by some banks but not others, affecting the DSCR.

Strategies to Improve DSCR

  • Increase Rental Income: Renovations or updates to the property can attract higher rent, directly boosting NOI and thus the DSCR. Regularly review rental rates to ensure they align with current market conditions.
  • Reduce Operating Expenses: Minimizing property management fees, maintenance costs, and other operational expenses can increase NOI. Efficient management practices are key here.
  • Refinance Existing Debt: Securing a loan with a lower interest rate or longer amortization period can reduce annual debt service obligations, thereby improving DSCR.
  • Add Revenue Streams: Consider adding additional services for tenants, like parking, storage, or laundry facilities, which can increase overall income from the property.

Case Study:

Michael, an investor in Sydney, owns a multi-unit residential building. He noticed his DSCR slipping below the preferred threshold due to rising maintenance costs and static rental incomes. To improve his DSCR, Michael renovated the units, allowing him to increase rents, and renegotiated contracts with service providers to reduce operational expenses. These changes raised his NOI and improved his DSCR from 1.1 to 1.4, better positioning him for future refinancing.

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Section 3: Advanced Structuring Techniques for Australian Markets

Diversifying Loan Products in Australia

In an environment as dynamic as Australia’s property market, diversifying your loan products can be a strategic move to hedge against the volatility of interest rates and enhance your financial stability. This approach involves using a variety of loan types to balance risk and flexibility according to your investment strategy.

Understanding Loan Diversification

Loan diversification in Australia means not putting all your financial eggs in one basket. By spreading your borrowings across different loan products, you can take advantage of various features and benefits that each type offers, thus potentially reducing the impact of market fluctuations on your overall portfolio.

Key Australian Loan Products for Diversification

  • Offset Accounts: An offset account is linked to your mortgage but operates like a savings account. Money held in this account offsets the balance of your mortgage, reducing the interest you pay. For example, if you have a mortgage of $500,000 and $20,000 in your offset account, you only pay interest on $480,000. This setup is ideal for reducing interest costs while keeping funds accessible.
  • Lines of Credit: A line of credit acts similarly to a credit card, offering a pre-approved credit limit that you can draw on as needed. Interest is only charged on the amount used, not the total available. This flexibility can be particularly useful for investors needing ready access to funds for quick decision-making or unexpected opportunities.
  • Fixed and Variable Rate Loans: Combining fixed and variable rate loans can provide both stability and flexibility. You might fix a portion of your loan to hedge against rate increases while keeping another portion variable to benefit from potential rate decreases.

Mitigating Risks with Diversification

  • Stability in Payments: Using fixed-rate loans for part of your borrowing can protect you against rising interest rates, ensuring that some of your repayments remain constant.
  • Flexibility and Savings: Variable rate loans and lines of credit can reduce costs when rates fall and provide financial flexibility to capitalize on new investment opportunities.


Laura, a property investor in Perth, uses a diversified loan strategy to manage her portfolio of rental properties. She has a portion of her loans fixed to lock in low rates for the next five years, while another portion remains variable, taking advantage of lower rates currently available. Additionally, Laura maintains an offset account, which reduces the interest on her variable loans, and a line of credit to fund quick renovations that increase rental yields.

The Strategic Timing of Refinancing in Australia

Refinancing can be a powerful tool for property investors, allowing them to adapt to changes in the market, seize new opportunities, or improve the terms of their existing loans. In Australia, the timing of when you choose to refinance can significantly impact the benefits you receive, making an understanding of interest rate cycles and economic forecasts essential.

Understanding Australian Interest Rate Cycles

Interest rates in Australia are influenced by the broader economic environment and the monetary policy decisions of the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA). Typically, rates rise during economic growth periods to curb inflation and fall during economic downturns to stimulate spending. Timing your refinancing to coincide with these cycles can maximise your financial benefits.

Best Times to Refinance

  • When Rates Are Predicted to Rise: Refinancing before an expected increase can lock in a lower rate, potentially saving you thousands in interest payments over the life of the loan.
  • Economic Downturns: During downturns, the RBA might lower rates to stimulate the economy. Refinancing during these periods can secure a lower interest rate and reduce your monthly repayments.
  • After Improvements in Credit Score or Debt Profile: If your financial situation has improved significantly, you may qualify for better loan terms. Refinancing can capitalize on your improved credit standing.

Benefits of Refinancing Under Australian Tax Laws

Refinancing can also provide tax advantages:

  • Interest Deductions: Interest on loans for investment properties is typically tax-deductible. If refinancing provides a lower interest rate, the overall amount of deductible interest might increase if you extend the loan period.
  • Costs of Refinancing: Costs associated with refinancing, such as establishment fees, valuation fees, and legal fees, can also be deductible, providing additional tax benefits.


Mark, an investor in Adelaide, initially financed his commercial property at a 5% interest rate. After several years, improved economic forecasts and a stronger personal financial position allowed him to refinance at a 3.5% rate. Not only did this decrease his monthly payments, but it also improved his loan structure to better accommodate his plans for further property investments.

Cross-Collateralisation in the Australian Market

Cross-collateralisation is a financing technique where more than one property is used as security for a loan or multiple loans. This approach can be particularly useful for property investors looking to expand their portfolios without immediate cash outlays. However, understanding the legal and financial implications within the Australian context is crucial for effectively managing the associated risks.

Understanding Cross-Collateralisation

In Australia, cross-collateralisation allows investors to leverage the equity in one property to secure financing for another, essentially binding the properties together under one or more lending agreements. This strategy can simplify the borrowing process by dealing with a single lender and potentially accessing better interest rates due to the higher security value.

Legal and Financial Implications

  • Risk of Higher Debt Levels: Using multiple properties as security can potentially expose investors to higher debt levels, which might be unsustainable in economic downturns.
  • Difficulty in Selling Individual Properties: Selling one property that’s part of a cross-collateralised loan may require restructuring the entire loan, which can be complex and costly.
  • Loan-to-Value Ratios (LVR): Higher combined LVRs may result from cross-collateralisation, affecting loan terms and the need for lenders’ mortgage insurance.

Practice Examples and Cautionary Tales


John, an investor in Sydney, used cross-collateralisation to secure loans for three rental properties. This strategy initially helped him expand his portfolio quickly. However, when property values dipped during an economic slowdown, John faced challenges in servicing the debt, as his overall LVR became less favourable, increasing his interest rates and financial strain.

Cautionary Tale:

Sarah, a Brisbane property investor, experienced difficulties when she decided to sell one of her three cross-collateralised properties. The sale required her to renegotiate her remaining loans, which included costly valuations and legal fees, ultimately eroding the profits from the sale.

Mitigating Risk

  • Separate Financing: Where possible, avoid linking all property finances. This can protect other assets if financial issues arise with one investment.
  • Regular Portfolio Reviews: Assess the performance and financing structure of your portfolio regularly to ensure it aligns with current market conditions and your long-term financial goals.
  • Professional Advice: Consulting with financial advisors or mortgage brokers who understand the complexities of Australian property laws can provide tailored advice and risk management strategies.

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Navigating Tax Implications for Property Investments in Australia

Navigating the tax implications of property investments in Australia requires a strategic approach to loan structuring. Different loan structures offer various tax advantages that can significantly affect the overall profitability of your investments. Additionally, staying updated with the latest changes in tax legislation is crucial for maximising these benefits while ensuring compliance.

Optimising Loan Structures for Tax Benefits

  • Interest Deductibility: Interest on loans used to purchase or improve investment properties is generally tax-deductible in Australia. Structuring your loans to maximize this deduction can reduce your taxable income. For instance, investors might choose interest-only loans to maximize their deductible expenses during the early years of property investment.
  • Depreciation and Building Write-offs: Certain types of loans can also facilitate tax deductions through depreciation for renovations or construction. Investors need to structure their financing to support these activities, maximizing their claims under the applicable depreciation schedules.
  • Loan Splitting: Splitting your loan into multiple accounts, each for different purposes (e.g., one for investment, another for personal use), can help clearly delineate deductible debt from non-deductible debt, simplifying tax filings and maximizing deductions.

Optimising Loan Structures for Tax Benefits

  • Limitations on Deductions: Recent legislative changes have put limitations on the deductibility of travel expenses related to inspecting, maintaining, or collecting rent for a residential rental property, which previously could be claimed.
  • Depreciation Rules: Changes to depreciation rules now restrict investors from claiming deductions for the depreciation of previously used fixtures and fittings in residential rental properties purchased after May 2017. However, deductions for capital works have remained largely unchanged.
  • Vacancy Tax: Some states have introduced a vacancy tax on properties that are not occupied or rented out for more than six months in a year, encouraging property owners to either rent out or sell unoccupied properties.

Case Study:

Michael, an investor in Melbourne, recently restructured his property loan to an interest-only setup to maximize his interest deductions. By consulting with a tax advisor, he also identified eligible depreciation claims following extensive renovations. These strategic moves helped Michael significantly reduce his taxable income, aligning with the latest tax regulations.

Tax Planning Strategies

  • Annual Reviews: Regular reviews of your loan and investment structures with a qualified tax professional can ensure that you are both compliant with current tax laws and positioned to take full advantage of available tax benefits.
  • Professional Advice: Always seek professional advice when considering changes to your investment structures. Tax laws can be complex, and personalized advice is crucial to navigating these waters effectively.

Tailoring Your Investment Strategy for Maximum Benefit

Throughout this guide, we’ve explored a variety of strategies for mastering loan structures in the Australian property market. Each section has provided insights into optimizing different loan types, understanding essential financial metrics, employing advanced structuring techniques, and navigating the tax implications of property investments. These elements are critical for any investor looking to not only survive but thrive in Australia’s dynamic property sector.

Key Takeaways:

  • Choosing the Right Loan Type: Whether it’s fixed-rate, variable-rate, interest-only, or principal and interest loans, understanding the nuances of each can significantly impact your investment’s profitability and flexibility.
  • Understanding Metrics Like LVR and DSCR: These metrics are essential for assessing risk and securing favourable loan terms, making them fundamental in the loan decision-making process.
  • Utilising Advanced Structuring Techniques: Techniques such as loan diversification and cross-collateralisation can offer strategic advantages while also introducing specific risks that need careful management.
  • Keeping Abreast of Tax Changes: Recent legislative updates highlight the importance of staying informed about tax implications that affect property investment strategies and returns.


What is the best way to structure an investment property?

When structuring an investment property, the most common trusts used by Australian property investors are family trusts and unit trusts. A unit trust, similar to a company structure, provides a defined interest in the trust. This means your profit from the property will match your ownership percentage within the trust. It’s crucial to consult with a financial advisor to choose the best structure for your situation.

What is the formula for investment property?

To calculate the return on investment (ROI) for an investment property, you use the formula ROI = Annual Return / Total Out-of-Pocket Expenses. For instance, if you have a down payment of $50,000, closing costs of $5,000, and renovation costs of $15,000, your total out-of-pocket expenses would be $70,000. If your annual return is $10,500, the ROI calculation would be $10,500 divided by $70,000, resulting in an ROI of 0.15, or 15%.

How much can I borrow when I have an investment property?

Lenders in Australia typically allow you to borrow up to 80% of the investment property’s value, minus any existing debt against it. Some lenders may offer a higher loan-to-value ratio (LVR), but none will finance the entire property value. This ensures that if the property’s value drops, the loan amount does not exceed the property’s worth.

How to structure an equity loan?

A cost-effective way to structure an equity loan in Australia is by choosing a principal and interest loan. This type of loan typically offers lower interest rates compared to a line of credit or interest-only loans, resulting in significant savings over time. Regular payments reduce both the principal and the interest, helping you pay off the loan faster. Additionally, using an offset account can further reduce interest costs, as the account balance offsets your loan balance. This combination of cost-efficiency and financial control makes it a smart choice for many borrowers.

What is the 1% rule in property investing?

The 1% rule in property investing is a simple calculation to estimate the potential monthly rent. Multiply the property’s purchase price and any necessary repair costs by 1%. For example, if you buy a property for $500,000 and spend $50,000 on repairs, the total is $550,000. Applying the 1% rule, you should aim for a monthly rent of $5,500. This helps you compare the expected rent with the monthly mortgage payment to better understand the property’s cash flow.

Is it better to buy investment property with a company or as an individual?

Buying investment property through a company offers several advantages. These include tax benefits, enhanced asset protection, and the ability to manage capital gains and income distribution in a tax-efficient manner. However, it’s essential to weigh these benefits against your personal financial situation and seek advice from a financial expert.


Investing in property is a significant decision that requires meticulous planning and a deep understanding of financial strategies tailored to the Australian market. As we’ve seen, the landscape of property investment is continually evolving, influenced by economic shifts, legislative changes, and new financing products. Adapting these strategies to align with your personal financial goals is not just recommended; it’s essential for long-term success.

For bespoke advice and to ensure that your investment strategy is both robust and compliant with the latest regulations, consulting with a professional Mortgage Broker specialising in property investment is invaluable. They can provide you with tailored insights and strategies designed specifically for your circumstances and ambitions.

Take Action Now

Don’t navigate the complex world of property investment alone. Reach out today to an accredited Mortgage Broker such as Scale Mortgage to start crafting a loan structure that not only meets your immediate needs but also secures your financial future. Make the most of your investments by leveraging expert advice tailored to the unique landscape of the Australian property market. Or to get started, apply for your investment loan today!

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Internal Resources

Thomas Makin

Thomas Makin is the Principal Mortgage Broker and Co-Founder of Scale Mortgage. He has a Diploma in Finance and Mortgage Broking Management and is accredited by the Mortgage & Finance Association of Australia (MFAA).

Thomas is known for his skill in providing tailored mortgage solutions. He helps homebuyers and investors across Australia, showing a strong commitment to professionalism and high industry standards.

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